Mangrove forests are a type of forest that generally grow in brackish water and places where siltation and accumulation of organic matter occurs, such as in bays that are protected from the onslaught of waves ,and river estuaries, which generally have a lot of silt and sediments.
Mangrove forest ecosystems are also distinct due to the silting which results in less soil abrasion and high soil salinity, and tidal inundations. This results in only a few plant species that can survive in mangrove forest area.
Facts About Mangrove Forests:
1. Mangrove forests grow in 124 countries
Mangrove forest ecosystems are found in 124 tropical and subtropical countries in the world, with an area totaling about 15.5 million hectares. A total of 48 percent of the world’s mangrove forests are in Indonesia, Australia, Brazil, Nigeria and Mexico.
2. Possess an Effective Carbon Absorption Rate
Mangrove forests have been shown to store five times more carbon per hectare than upland tropical forests. (CIFOR)
3. Stabilize the Coastline
The roots of mangrove trees can keep the coastline stable. The waves that hit will be broken by the roots of mangrove plants sticking out of the surface, thus protecting the coast from erosion.
4. Can Purify Water
Roots that stick out of the surface (breathing root) not only allow the mangrove to breath but also filter out chemical substances, pollutants, and sediment so that the sea water becomes clear and clean. Most of the river water that enters the sea carries various kinds of waste which can cause flooding, and chemicals. The presence of mangrove forests allows the cleanliness of coastal water to be maintained.
5. Indonesia Accounts for 25 percent of Mangroves in the World
Based on One Map Mangrove data, Indonesia’s mangrove ecosystem covers 3.5 million hectares consisting of 2.2 million hectares in mangrove areas and 1.3 million hectares outside mangrove area.
6. Mangrove Ecosystem Continues to Sustain Damage
In Indonesia, mangrove ecosystems are found in 257 districts/cities. Unfortunately, most of these ecosystems have suffered damage due to land conversion, encroachment, pests and diseases, pollution and expansion of fish ponds, and unsustainable cultivation practices.